Tuesday, January 3, 2017




Temperature is the level of heat or the measure of the intensity of heat of a
substance. Temperature is directly proportional to heat. As heat is added to
a substance, its temperature increases. As heat is removed, its temperature

The English system uses the Fahrenheit to measure temperature. The metric
or the SI unit of temperature is the Celsius. A thermometer is an instrument
that is used to measure temperature.

At standard atmospheric conditions, the pressure is 29.92 in. Hg or 14.7 psia
at sea level. At these given conditions:
a. water boils at 212 °F
b. water freezes and becomes ice at 32 °F

Absolute zero is the temperature at which there is zero heat and molecules have
zero movement.

The absolute zero temperature in the Rankine scale is 0 °R. This is equal
to -460 °F.

°R = °F + 460

The absolute zero temperature in the Kelvin scale is 0 °K. This is equal
to -273 °C.

°K = °C + 273

To convert from °C to °F:

°F = (1.8 x °C) + 32

Example: Convert 100 °C, the boiling point of water to °F

°F = (1.8 x 100) + 32

°F = (180) + 32
°F = 212 °F

To convert from °F to °C:

Example: Convert 32 °F, the freezing point of water to °C

°C = (°F - 32)/1.8

°C = (32 - 32)/1.8

°C = 0 °C


Charle's Law:
If the pressure of a gas is constant, its absolute temperature is directly
proportional to its volume,

(V1/T1) = (V2/T2)

Find the absolute temperature at which 50 liters of a gas at 21 C
must be raised at in order to have a final volume of 100 liters.

V1 = 50 liters
T1 = 21 + 273 = 294 K
V2 = 100 liters

(V1/T1) = (V2/T2)

50/294 = 100/T2

T2 = 294 x 100/50

T2 = 588 K


Charle's Law:
If the volume of a gas is constant, its absolute temperature is directly
proportional to its pressure,

(P1/T1) = (P2/T2)

A certain gas has an initial pressure of 500 Kpaa at 21 C. Determine its final
pressure when the temperature is increased to 35 C.

P1 = 500 Kpaa
T1 = 21 + 273 = 294 K
T2 = 35 + 273 = 308 K

(P1/T1) = (P2/T2)

500/294 = P2/308

P2 = 500 x 308/294

P2 = 524 Kpaa


Pressure is the force acting on a unit area. Pressure is inversely proportional
to the area of contact. The smaller the area of contact, the greater the
pressure exerted. Pressure is directly proportional to the force.

Pressure flows from a higher pressure to a lower pressure until it equalizes.

P = F/A

Find the pressure on one sole of the foot of a 180 lb person. What is the
pressure if the same person stands on both feet?

a. The area of one sole of a foot of an average person is 30 sq in.

P = F/A

P = 180/30

P = 6 psi

b. The area of both soles of the feet of an average person is 60 sq. in.

P = 180/60

P = 3 psi

Thus, the pressure exerted is twice greater standing on one foot than the
pressure when standing on both feet.


Pressure is directly proportional to the depth and the relative density
of the liquid.

P = 9.8 x d x RD

P = pressure in Kpa
d = depth of liquid in meters
RD = relative density of the liquid

Relative density is also known as Specific Gravity. It is the ratio of the density of
a substance to the density of a reference substance (water). It is also equal to
the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of an equal volume of water.

SG = Density of substance/Density of water

SG = mass of substance/mass of equal volume of water

The specific gravity of an object which will float on water is equal to the
fraction of the submerged volume. It is also equal to the ratio of the
submerged height to the object's total height.

If the specific gravity of a substance is lesser than 1, it will float on water. If
it is greater than 1, it will be submerged in water.

The relative density of a certain oil is 0.82. Find the pressure at the bottom
of the oil storage tank if the oil level is 2 meters.

d = 2 m
RD = 0.82

P = 9.8 x d x RD

P = 9.8 x 2 x 0.82

P = 16 Kpa

An empty container has a mass of 50 g. When filled with water, the total
mass is 200 g. When filled with a liquid with an equal volume as that of
the water, the total mass is 300 g. Calculate the specific gravity of the

mass of liquid = 300 - 50 = 250 g
mass of water = 200 - 50 = 150 g

SG = mass of substance/mass of equal volume of water

SG = 250/150

SG = 1.67

A block of wood is 10 inches in length. It was dropped in a container filled
with water. The submerged height was 8 inches. Find the relative density of
the given wood.

submerged height = 8 in
total height = 10 in

RD = submerged height/total height

RD = 8/10

RD = 0.8


Boyle’s law:
If the temperature is constant, the absolute pressure of a gas is inversely
proportional to its volume.

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

The piston compressed a gas from 12 liters at 100 Kpaa to a final volume of 1 liter.
Determine the final pressure.

P1 = 100 Kpaa
V1 = 12 liters
V2 = 1 liter

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

P2 = 100 x 12/1

P2 = 1200 Kpa


Dalton’s law:
The total pressure of a confined mixture of gases is the sum of the individual
pressures of the gases in the mixture.

Pm x Vm = (P1 x V1) + (P2 x V2) + (P3 x V3) + ...

Tank A contains Nitrogen at a pressure 2400 Kpaa and a volume of 100 liters.
Tank B contains gas at a pressure of 1000 Kpaa and a volume of 200 liters. If
the tanks are connected and the valves of both tanks are opened to allow
the gases to mix, calculate the total pressure of the gas mixture.

P1 = 2400 Kpaa
V1 = 100 L
P2 = 1000 Kpaa
V2 = 200 L
Vm = 100 + 200 = 300 L

Pm x Vm = (P1 x V1) + (P2 x V2)

Pm x 300 = (2400 x 100) + (1000 x 200)

Pm = 1467 Kpaa


P1 x V1/T1 = P2 x V2/T2

An air compressor compresses air from 20 liters at 100 Kpaa and 27 C to 2 liters
and 1200 Kpaa. Find the final temperature of air.

P1 = 100 Kpaa
V1 = 20 liters
T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K
P2 = 1200 Kpaa
V2 = 2 liters

P1 x V1/T1 = P2 x V2/T2

100 x 20/300 = 1200 x 2/T2

T2 = 360 K


1. Zeroth law
If two systems are in thermal equilibrium with a third system, all three systems
are in thermal equilibrium.

2. First law
Energy cannot be created nor destroyed but can be transformed from one form
into another. Perpetual motion machines are impossible.

3. Second law
The entropy (disorder) increases and the energy decreases whenever energy is
transformed from one form to another.

4. Third law
At absolute zero temperature, all atoms of a substance will stop moving.
The entropy of a system is zero at absolute zero temperature.


1. Inertia
A body will stay at rest or in motion unless acted upon by external force.

2. Acceleration
Acceleration is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional
to the mass. Force is the product of an object's mass and acceleration.

a = F/m

F = m x a

3. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.


Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance.

D = m/V

m = D x V

density of water (4 C/39 F) = 62 lb/cu ft (approx 8 lb/gal)

density of air (sea level, 15 C/59 F) = 1.22 kg/m^3

density of air (sea level, 15 C/59 F) = 0.076 lb/cu ft (approx  1 oz/cu ft)

1 ounce (oz) = 28 grams

1 cubic foot (cu ft) = 7.5 gallons (US)

1 cubic meter = 35 cu ft (264 US gal)

Calculate the mass of 1 gallon of water.

V = 1 gallon

m = D x V

m = 8 x 1

m = 8 lb


Specific volume is the volume of a substance per unit mass.
Specific volume is the inverse (reciprocal) of density.

SV = V/m

SV = 1/D

The specific volume of dry air at standard atmospheric conditions is 13.33 cu ft/lb.


Weight is the force caused by Earth's gravity.
Weight is the number (value) you see on a weighing scale.
Weight is a form of Force.

W = m x g

F = m x g

W = F

W = weight of object, Newtons
m = mass of object, kilograms
g = acceleration due to gravity, equal to 9.8 m/s^2
F = force, Newtons

What is the weight of an object having a mass of 8 kg?

m = 8 kg

W = m x g

W = 8 x 9.8

W = 78 N


Work is the product of the force and the distance travelled.
Work is also the product of Pressure and Volume (flow work).

Work = F x d

Work = P x V

A sand bag with a mass of 20 kg is raised to a height of 1 meter. Find the
work required. How much is the work done by the sand bag if it was dropped
1 meter?

Force = mass x acceleration due to gravity
F = m x g
F = 20 x 9.8
F = 196 N

d = 1 m

Work = F x d

Work = 196 x 1

Work = 196 Nm (Joules)


Power is the rate of doing work. Power is work per unit of time.
Power is also the product of Force and Velocity.

Power = Work/time

Power = F x d/t

Power = Force x velocity

1 Horsepower (HP) = 746 watts

1 Kilowatt (KW) = 1.34 HP

How much power is required by a pump to raise 1 drum of water (approx.
200 liters, 55 US gallons) to a height of 10 meters in 2 minutes?

m = 200 kg (the mass of 1 Liter of water is 1 Kilogram)
d = 10 m
t = 2 x 60 = 120 sec

F = m x g
F = 200 x 9.8
F = 1960 N

Work = F x d
Work = 1960 x 10
Work = 19,600 J

Power = Work/time
Power = 19,600/120
Power = 163 J/s (watts)

Horsepower = 163/746
Horsepower = 0.22 HP


Efficiency is the ratio of Power output to Power input. It is expressed in %.

Efficiency = Power output/Power input

% Efficiency = (Power output/Power input) x 100%

If the pump in the previous example is 90% efficient, calculate the required
power input to the pump.


Power input = Power output/Efficiency

Power input = 0.22/0.90

Power input = 0.24 HP (approx. 1/4 HP)


Energy is the ability to do work.

Potential Energy
Potential Energy (PE) is the energy of a body due to its position (height).
PE is equal to the work done in lifting that given body to that height.

PE = F x d

PE = Work

Calculate the potential energy of 4 liters (approx 1 gallon) of water at a
height of 3 meters (approx 10 feet).

F = m x g
F = 4 x 9.8 = 39 N
d = 3 m

PE = F x d
PE = 39 x 3
PE = 117 J

The power required by a 100 watt light bulb is approximately equal to the
work required to lift 1 gallon of water to a height of 10 feet in 1 second.

Kinetic Energy
Kinetic Energy (KE) is the energy of a body due to its motion.
Kinetic Energy is equal to 1/2 times the product of mass and the square of

KE = 0.5 x m x v^2

A car travelling at 90 km/hr (55 mph) have a speed of 25 meters per second.
If the car has a mass of 2000 kg, determine its kinetic energy at this speed.

m = 2000 kg
v = 25 m/s

KE = 0.5 x m x v^2

KE = 0.5 x 2000 x 25 x 25

KE = 625,000 J

KE = 625 KJ


Heat is a form of energy.
Heat naturally flows from a hotter substance to a colder substance.
Heat is directly proportional to mass, specific heat and temperature difference.

Q = m x C x TD

Q = heat
m = mass
C = specific heat
TD = temperature difference

1 Btu = 1.05 KJ

1 KJ = 0.95 Btu

Specific Heat
Specific heat is the amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of a substance
1 degree Fahrenheit.

specific heat of water = 1 Btu/lb-F (4.2 KJ/kg-C)

specific heat of ice = 0.5 Btu/lb-F (2.1 KJ/kg-C)

specific heat of steam = 0.5 Btu/lb-F (2.1 KJ/kg-C)

specific heat of air = 0.24 Btu/lb-F (1 KJ/kg-C)

A hot water tank is to be heated to a temperature of 140 °F (60 C). If the
temperature of city cold water is 45 °F  (7 C), find the heat required to heat
a 50 gallon residential hot water tank.

m = D x V
m = 8 lb/gal x 50 gal = 400 lb
T1 = 45 F
T2 = 140 F

Q = m x C x (T2 - T1)

Q = 400 x 1 x (140 - 45)

Q = 38,000 Btu

Residential water heaters (boilers) range in size from 50,000 - 150,000 Btu/hr.

Sensible heat
Sensible heat is a form of heat with a change in temperature without a change
of state. It can be measured by a thermometer.

Latent heat
Latent is a form of heat with a change of state without change in temperature.
This cannot be measured by a thermometer.

latent heat of vaporization of water = 970 Btu/lb (2260 KJ/kg)

latent heat of fusion of ice = 144 Btu/lb (334 KJ/kg)

The temperature of a domestic refrigerator freezer compartment is 0 °F to 5 °F
(-18 C to -15 C). Calculate the total heat required to melt 1 lb of ice at 0 F and
turn it to steam at 222 F.

m = 1 lb
T ice = 0 F
T ice melting point = 32 F
T water boiling point = 212 F
T steam = 222 F

a. Sensible heat of ice

specific heat of ice = 0.5 Btu/lb-F

Q = m x C x (T ice melting point - T ice)

Q = 1 x 0.5 x (32 - 0)

Q = 16 Btu

b. Latent heat of ice

latent heat of fusion (LHF) of ice = 144 Btu/lb

Q = m x LHF

Q = 1 x 144

Q = 144 Btu

c. Sensible heat of water (melted ice to boiling water)

specific heat of water = 1 Btu/lb-F

Q = m x C x (T water boiling point - T ice melting point)

Q = 1 x 1 x (212 - 32)

Q = 180 Btu

d. Latent heat of vapor

latent heat of vaporization (LHV) of water = 970 Btu/lb

Q = m x LHV

Q = 1 x 970

Q = 970 Btu

e. Sensible heat of steam (superheated vapor at 222 F)

specific heat of steam = 0.5 Btu/lb-F

Q = m x C x (T steam - T water boiling point)

Q = 1 x 0.5 x (222 - 212)

Q = 5 Btu

f. Total heat

Qtotal = 16 + 144 + 180 + 970 + 5

Qtotal = 1315 Btu


Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from a substance and transferring
that heat to another substance.

Refrigeration Capacity (Rating)
One ton of refrigeration is the amount of heat required to melt 1 ton (2000 lb)
of ice in 24 hours. Refrigeration equipment are rated in tons (tonnage) or KW.

1 Ton of Refrigeration (TOR) = 288,000 Btu/24 hr

1 Ton of Refrigeration (TOR) = 12,000 Btu/hr

1 Ton of Refrigeration (TOR) = 200 Btu/min

1 Ton of Refrigeration (TOR) = 3.5 KW

1 Ton of Refrigeration (TOR) = 4.7 HP

1 KW = 3412 Btu/hr

1 KW-hr = 3412 Btu 

1 watt = 3.4 Btu/hr

1 HP = 2544 Btu/hr

A house has a 75,000 Btu/hr furnace for winter heating. Calculate its power
in KW.  The furnace runs an average of 10 hours per day. If the cost of energy
is 7 cents/KW-hr, find the daily and monthly power consumption and energy
cost of heating the house during the winter season.

Power = 75,000 Btu/hr
Energy cost = 7 cents/KW-hr = $0.07/KW-hr
Furnace run time = 10 hr/day

a. Power in KW

Power = 75,000 Btu/hr  x  1 KW/3412 Btu/hr

Power = 75,000/3412

Power = 22 KW

b. Daily power consumption for heating

Power per day = 22 KW x 10 hr/day

Power per day = 220 KW-hr/day

c. Daily energy cost for heating in the winter season

Energy cost per day = 220 KW-hr/day  x  $0.07/KW-hr

Energy cost per day = $15

d. Monthly power consumption for heating

Power per month = 220 KW-hr/day x 30 days/month

Power per month = 6600 KW-hr/month

e. Monthly energy cost for heating in the winter season

Energy cost per month = 6600 KW-hr/month  x  $0.07/KW-hr

Energy cost per month = $462


Air-conditioning is a branch of refrigeration that deals with comfort cooling.
Air conditioning provides comfortable:
(1) temperature
(2) humidity
(3) air flow
(4) air quality


A house has 3 bedrooms each with a 6000 Btu/hr window air-conditioner.
The living room and all common living spaces are cooled by a ductless split
air-conditioner with a total cooling capacity of 2 tons. All air-conditioning
equipment run continuously for 24 hours each day during the summer. The cost
of electricity is 7 cents/KW-hr. How much is the daily and monthly power
consumption and electric bill spent for cooling and air conditioning the house.

Total Power = (3 x 6,000 Btu/hr) + (2 tons x 12,000 Btu/hr per ton)
Total Power = 18,000 + 24,000
Total Power = 42,000 Btu/hr ==> 3.5 tons
Energy cost = 7 cents/KW-hr = $0.07/KW-hr
Air Conditioner running time = 24 hr/day

a. Total Power in KW

Power = 42,000 Btu/hr  x  1 KW/3412 Btu/hr

Power = 42,000/3412

Power = 12 KW

b. Daily power consumption for air conditioning

Power per day = 12 KW x 24 hr/day

Power per day = 288 KW-hr/day

c. Daily energy cost of air conditioning in summer season

Energy cost per day = 288 KW-hr/day  x  $0.07/KW-hr

Energy cost per day = $20

d. Monthly power consumption for air conditioning

Power per month = 288 KW-hr/day x 30 days/month

Power per month = 8640 KW-hr/month

e. Monthly energy cost of air conditioning in summer season

Energy cost per month = 8640 KW-hr/month  x  $0.07/KW-hr

Energy cost per month = $600



Conduction is a method of heat transfer through direct contact. An example
of conduction is a cooking pot directly over a burner hot plate. Heat directly
transfers from the stove hot plate to the cooking pot.

Metals such as copper, aluminum, brass, tin and silver are good conductors of
heat and electricity because of free electrons that travel to another substance.
Good conductors of heat take a short amount of time for heat transfer.
Copper is one of the best conductors and is widely used in the refrigeration
industry for refrigerant piping as well as wires for power and controls.

Poor conductors of heat are called insulators. Glass, fiberglass, cork, styrofoam
and vermiculite are examples of heat insulating materials. Glass is one of the
poorest conductors of heat and is typically used in many applications.


Convection is a method of heat transfer by moving currents in gases or liquids.
There are two forms of convection: natural and forced. Hot air currents rising
above a furnace and spreading around the room is an example of natural
convection. The hot air is replaced by the colder denser air and thereby provides
continuous air current movement. Another type of convection is forced convection,
whereby a fan or blower creates a pressure difference (pressure flows from a
region of higher pressure to a region of lower pressure). This ensures air is
circulated throughout the room.

Air and water are the most common mediums used in the heating and air
conditioning industry. Common examples are centralized hot water heating
systems in most buildings. Other applications are the use of hot air and steam
for heating.


Radiation is a method of heat transfer whereby the heat travels in the form of
high speed infra-red radiation waves. Radiation is the process in which heat is
transferred without affecting the space between the heat source and the
absorbing material. An example of this is the heat from the sun to the earth.
Heat is absorbed by the earth without heating the outer space.

The amount of heat radiated by a hot body depends on the:
a. area of radiating surface
b. texture of radiating surface
c. colour of radiating surface
d. temperature difference between the object and its surroundings

The best radiators and absorbers of radiant heat are those materials that have
rough dull black surfaces. The best reflectors of heat are those materials
with shiny or white surfaces.


Food preservation
As the temperature of food products is lowered, the growth of bacteria which
causes food spoilage will be diminished.

Comfort cooling
Comfort cooling, also known as air-conditioning is used to provide comfortable
living conditions for homes and offices.


The temperature ranges in the refrigeration industry are:
1. High temperature: 45°F to 70°F (7 C to 21 C)
2. Medium temperature: 35°F to 45°F (2 C to 7 C)
3. Low temperature: 0°F to -10°F (-18 C to -23 C)


40°F (4 C): evaporator cooling coil design temperature
55°F (13 C): evaporator fan air temperature (supply to room)
75°F (24 C): inside room design temperature (return air from room)
95°F (35 C): outside ambient design temperature (condenser air supply)
125°F (52 C): condenser outside coil design temperature


The atmospheric pressure of air at sea level is 29.92 in Hg or 14.7 psia. The
boiling point of water at these conditions is 212 F.

The atmospheric pressure of air at higher elevations is reduced by approx
1 in Hg per 1000 ft (0.5 psi/1000 ft). Mount Everest has a height of 29,029 ft
(8,848 m). The actual measured air pressure at the top of Mount Everest is
about 10 in Hg (5 psi). The air pressure is 1/3 that of sea level, resulting in the
reduction of oxygen which is the reason why it is very difficult to breathe at
higher elevations. Also, the boiling point of water is reduced to 71 °C (160 °F).
These conditions will make cooking difficult and will require more time to cook.


A refrigerant is a substance used in refrigeration process that can quickly turn
into vapor by the addition of heat and into a liquid by the removal of heat.

Saturation temperature of a refrigerant is its boiling point. In this state, the
refrigerant is a mixture of liquid and vapour. The saturation temperature
increases with an increase in saturation pressure. A saturated vapor is a vapor
in which it will readily become superheated vapor with the addition of heat and
will readily condense to a sub-cooled liquid with the removal of heat.


Superheat is the temperature above saturation. A superheated vapor is a vapor
with a temperature higher than the saturation temperature. Subcooling is the
temperature below saturation. A sub-cooled liquid is a liquid with a temperature
lower than the saturation temperature.

Steam at 222 F is superheated by 10 F because the boiling point (saturation
temperature of water is 212 F).

Superheat = 222 F - 212 F = 10 F

Water at 200 F is subcooled by 12 F because the saturation temperature of
water is 212 F.

Sub-cooling = 212 F - 200 F = 12 F

1. Compressor
2. Condenser
3. Metering device
4. Evaporator


The function of the compressor is to circulate the refrigerant throughout the
system. It lowers the pressure on the low-pressure side of the system and
raises pressure on the high-pressure side of the system. This difference in
pressure (pressure differential) is what causes the refrigerant to flow. The
compressor does this by drawing the refrigerant vapor from the evaporator,
compressing it (reducing its volume, while increasing its pressure) and then
discharges it to the condenser.


The condenser removes heat from the refrigeration system. The condenser
performs three basics purposes. First, it desuperheats the refrigerant from
superheated vapor to saturated vapor. Second, it condenses the saturated vapor
and convert it to saturated liquid. Third, it subcools the saturated liquid to a
temperature below the boiling point.

The Liquid Line is the tubing from the condenser outlet to the metering device.
It contains subcooled liquid and its temperature is higher than the suction line.


The metering device or expansion device regulates the amount and flow of
liquid refrigerant into the evaporator. It lowers the pressure of the refrigerant,
causing it to turn into a mixture of flash gas and liquid. This will cause the
refrigerant to have low pressure and low temperature so that it can evaporate
(boil) at a low temperature, absorb heat from the load and produce a cooling
effect in the evaporator.


The evaporator provides cooling by absorbing heat. It performs three main
functions: absorb heat, turn liquid refrigerant into saturated vapor and superheat
the refrigerant before being sent to the compressor.

The Suction Line is the tubing used to connect the evaporator outlet to the
compressor suction. The suction line is usually made of copper and is insulated
to prevent heat from the surroundings to be absorbed by the system. Another
reason why suction lines are insulated is to prevent sweating (condensation).
A suction line with insulation provides higher efficiency than a suction line with
no insulation. Higher efficiency will translate into savings on energy costs.

18 apr 2015


60 F = vapor refrigerant entering temperature
200 F = vapor refrigerant exiting temperature
delta T = 200 - 60 = 140 F

70 psig = vapor refrigerant entering pressure
280 psig = vapor refrigerant exiting pressure
delta P = 280 - 70 = 210 psig
compression ratio = 280/70 = 4

280 psig = saturation pressure (head pressure, condensing pressure)
280 psig = refrigerant inlet pressure
280 psig = refrigerant outlet pressure (constant pressure condenser)
95 F = outside ambient air temperature
30 F = temperature difference between ambient and condensing temperature

200 F = vapor refrigerant entering temperature
125 F = saturation temperature at condenser (condensing temperature)
105 F = subcooled liquid temperature leaving condenser
subcooling = 125 - 105 = 20 F

105 F = subcooled liquid refrigerant temperature entering metering device
40 F = refrigerant temperature exiting metering device
delta T = 105 - 40 = 65 F

280 psig = subcooled liquid refrigerant pressure entering metering device
70 psig = refrigerant pressure exiting metering device
delta P = 280 - 70 = 210 psig

75% liquid, 25% vapor = state of refrigerant exiting metering device

40 F = refrigerant inlet temperature
50 F = refrigerant outlet temperature
evaporator superheat = 50 - 40 = 10 F

70 psig = refrigerant inlet pressure
70 psig = refrigerant outlet pressure (constant pressure evaporator)

60 F = compressor suction line temperature
system superheat (compressor superheat) = 60 - 40 = 20 F

50% = relative humidity of air entering evaporator
75 F = temperature of air entering evaporator (room air return temperature)
55 F = temperature of air leaving evaporator (room air supply temperature)
room air delta T = 75 - 55 = 20 F

20 F = outside ambient air & inside room air temperature differential
20 F = 95 F - 75 F

R-12 (Freon-12)
R-22 (Freon-22)

 - replacement for R-12
 - medium and high-temperature refrigeration
 - refrigerators, freezers, automotive air-conditioning

 - replacement for R-22 in residential and commercial air-conditioning

 - replacement for R-22 in residential and commercial air-conditioning
 -  higher operating pressures than R-22

 - replacement for R-502
 - low and medium temperature refrigeration

 - replacement for R-502
 - low and medium-temperature refrigeration applications
 - higher pressures and capacity than R-404A

 - replacement for R-502 and R-22
 - higher efficiency than R-404A
 - higher efficiency than low-temperature R-22

 - medium and low-temperature commercial refrigeration
 - direct expansion residential and commercial air-conditioning 

1. Safe
2. Detectable
3. Boiling point above atmospheric pressure
4. Economical compressor to handle vapor volume

Water is not a practical refrigerant because it will require a large compressor.
The vapor volume of water is 2445 cubit feet per 1 pound at 40°F.

1. Refrigerants displace oxygen because refrigerants are heavier than air.
2. When working with refrigerants, ensure proper ventilation.
3. Ensure there are no sources of arcs or open flames.
4. When refrigerants react with flame, they will emit toxic and corrosive gas.
5. Don't mix and match refrigerants.

1. Hearing/Visual
2. Soap-bubble solution
3. Ultrasonic leak detector
4. Electronic leak detector
5. Ultraviolet leak detection

R-11  Orange 
R-12  White 
R-22  Green
R-113  Purple 
R-114  Dark blue
R-134a  Light blue
R-123  Light gray

R-401A  Coral red
R-401B  Mustard yellow
R-401C  Aqua 

R-402A  Light brown 
R-402B  Green-brown 

R-404A  Orange
R-406A  Light gray-green

R-407A  Bright green
R-407B  Cream 
R-407C  Chocolate 

R-409A  Tan
R-410A  Rose 

R-500  Yellow
R-502  Orchid
R-717  Silver

It is illegal to intentionally vent refrigerant into the atmosphere.
It is mandatory for technicians to recover and sometimes recycle refrigerants
during installation and servicing.


The following are the tools generally used by refrigeration and air conditioning
service technicians:

Hand Tools:
Screwdrivers, bits & tips
Nut drivers
Cold chisel
Straight metal snips
Aviation metal snips
Taps (internal thread cutter) 
Die (external thread cutter
Pipe-threading die
Measuring Tape (Rule)
Extension cord/lights
Drill bits
Hole saw
Reciprocating saw
Fish tape
Utility knife

- Socket wrench with ratchet handle
- Open end wrench
- Box end wrench
- Combination wrench
- Adjustable wrench
- Ratchet box wrench (refrigeration wrench)
- Air-conditioning and refrigeration reversible ratchet hex wrench
- Air-conditioning and refrigeration reversible ratchet box wrench
- Flare nut wrenches
- Pipe wrench
- T-Handle hex keys
- Combination crimping and stripping tool
- Automatic wire stripper
- Stainless inspection mirror
- Glass telescoping inspection mirror
- Stapling tackers

- General-purpose pliers
- Needle-nose pliers
- Side cutting pliers
- Slip joint (channel locks)
- Locking pliers (vise grip)

- Ball-peen hammer
- Soft head (rubber mallet)
- Carpenter’s claw hammer

Power Tools:
- Portable electric drill, cord type
- Portable electric drill, cordless

Tubing Tools:
- Tube Cutter
- Inner–outer reamers
- Flaring Tools (flaring bar, slip-on yoke, feed screw with flaring cone, handle)
- Tube deburring tool
- Swaging Tools (punch-type, lever-type, die-type)
- Tube Benders (spring type, lever type, gear type)
- Plastic Tubing Shear (PVC and polyethylene tubing shear)
- Tubing Pinch-off tool
- Metalworker’s Hammer
- Tube brushes

Specialized Service and Installation Tools:
- Gauge manifold (high pressure, compound gauge (low-pressure and vacuum)
- Electronic gauge manifold (superheat and subcooling, vacuum, thermometer)
- Programmable charging meter or scale
- Digital vacuum gauge
- Electronic thermistor vacuum gauge (up to 50 microns or 0.050 mm Hg)
- Vacuum Pump



Sunday, November 8, 2015

Signs/Causes/Reasons for Overload trip - Motor troubleshooting

- blown fuse
- improperly sized fuse
- tripped/open circuit breaker
- failed capacitor
- overheating
- poor ventilation/lack of cooling
- high ambient temperature
- broken motor fan
- low voltage
- overvoltage
- voltage fluctuation, transient voltages
- power imbalance to the phases (not same power to each phase)
- insufficient torque
- belts too tight
- one phase drawing excessive amps
- one phase is open (single phasing)
- phase imbalance (voltage on one phase lesser than others)
- one phase drawing no (zero) amps
- open contactor contacts
- open motor winding
- low insulation resistance
- low resistances causing high currents
- vibration
- damaged stator
- loose wiring
- improper wiring combinations
- loose contactor contacts
- grounded motor
- shorted motor
- defective overload heater
- malfunctioning overload block
- overload relay failure
- overload protection not properly sized/not properly set
- motor sitting for long period of time (e.g. not operated during winter)
- seized motor
- rotor not turning
- shaft not turning freely
- shaft misalignment
- shaft too loose
- rotating parts contact stationary parts
- soft footing/foundation
- pipe strain
- moisture
- rust, contamination, dirt, accumulated dust
- bearing failure
- overlubrication
- inadequate or incorrect lubrication
- jam/obstruction inside/outside motor
- inadequate wiring/undersize wires
- undersized motor
- tripping of thermal protection/overload trip
- system alteration (e.g load increase, power supply changes, etc)
- new component added
- flowrate increase (airflow, water flow, heat load increase)
- operating a motor at 10% to 15% above rated speed
- harmonic distortion causing high frequency voltages or high current
- wear, incorrect fit
- shaft voltages/currents while rotating
- variable frequency drive (VFD) has improper pulses generated

Saturday, October 10, 2015

How ddc works: HVAC Furnace direct digital control


CENTRAL WORKSTATION (control, monitor, manage)
-         talks to global controllers/building controllers
-         send, receive, process, store, print the data
-         check component and system status
-         check trends and monitor performance of equipment
-         change set points, schedules and settings
-         ASCENT COMPASS - Alerton

GLOBAL CONTROLLERS (integrate devices)
-         talks to field controllers/zone controllers
-         connects/provides gateway to allow communication
with devices made by different manufacturers
-          integrates different devices
-         ACM, BCM, VLX - Alerton

FIELD CONTROLLERS (control terminal units)
-         operates actuators, fans, blowers, pumps
-         field controller for VAV, AHU, Fan coil unit, chiller
cooling tower, boiler, terminal unit
-         VLC, VAV - Alerton

-         provide input, send signal to controllers
-         display room setpoints and fan status
-         display room temperature, outside air temperature, relative humidity
-         MICROSET - Alerton

Receive Input Information From Sensors
Process Input Information
Respond with an Output Action
Receive Feedback when set point is met
Respond with another Output Action

Example:  How a Furnace DDC works?

1.      Thermostat (Sensor) calls for heat
2.      Thermostat switch is closed, sends voltage signal to control board
3.      Control board (“Brain”) receives and processes input signal from thermostat
4.      Control board closes contactor, inducer fan motor starts
5.      Air flow switch/Sail switch closes to confirm air flow supplied by fan
6.      Control board will activate the Spark Igniter
7.      Control board activates Gas Valve
8.      Burner ignites
9.      Flame Sensor detects flame
10.   Spark Igniter deactivates
11.   Control board energizes Indoor Fan Blower motor
12.   Furnace supplies heat to the structure (room, home, building, etc.)
13.   Thermostat temperature set point is met
14.   Thermostat opens switch, sends feedback signal voltage to control board
15.  Control board shuts off the Gas Valve and Induced draft fan
BAS uses an integrated network of Workstations, Global Controllers, Field Controllers, Sensors, Gateways, Routers, Repeaters, Cables and other associated components that are designed and programmed to provide the following building services:

  1. Networking
  2. Control, Monitoring and Alarms
  3. Data collection
  4. HVAC – Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning
  5. Real-time Adjustments of Setpoints, Percent valve openings, etc
  6. Scheduling, Remote Operation and Remote Access
  7. Changing Modes, e.g. Economizer mode (to save on energy costs)
  8. Load and Demand Control
  9. Fire Protection
  10. Security
  11. Lighting management
  12. Energy Management



Saturday, October 3, 2015

Refrigeration System Sequence of Operation


Power is supplied to Timer Motor

Timer Motor controls time for Cooling and Defrost cycles

Room Thermostat Closes when the temperature rises above setpoint

Control Board will activate the Refrigeration/Cooling Mode

Timer Motor is on Refrigeration/Cooling Mode

Defrost Heater is Off

Defrost Limit Switch is Off

Defrost Termination Solenoid is Off

Defrost Termination Thermostat/Fan Delay Switch is On

Evaporator Fan Motor is On

Liquid Line Solenoid is energized

Liquid Line Solenoid Valve Opens to allow liquid refrigerant to Evaporator

Low Pressure Control/Switch is Closed

High Pressure Control/Switch is Closed

Overload Protection is Closed

Compressor Contactor Coil is Energized

Compressor Runs

Condenser Fan Motor Runs

When Desired Room Temperature is reached

Room Thermostat Opens

Liquid Line Solenoid is De-energized

Liquid Line Solenoid Valve Closes

Compressor continues to run to allow Pump Down of refrigerant

Low Pressure Control/Switch will Open

Compressor Contactor Coil will De-energized

Compressor will turn Off

Condenser Fan Motor will turn Off

When defrost time is reached by the Timer Motor

Defrost Mode/Cycle begins



Compressor Pump Down process

Timer Motor will be on Defrost Mode/Cycle

Defrost Heater is On

Defrost Limit Switch is On

Defrost Termination Solenoid is On

Defrost Termination/Fan Delay Switch is Off

Evaporator Fan Motor is Off

When defrost time is completed and Evaporator warms up

Defrost Termination Thermostat Closes

Low Pressure Control Closes

Compressor starts

Condenser Fan Motor Starts

Refrigeration Cycle Starts

When Evaporator coil temperature cools down

Fan Delay Switch will Close

Evaporator Fan Motor will turn On

Refrigeration cycle continues until the next Defrost Cycle is set by Timer Motor

Saturday, September 19, 2015

Advantages Disadvantages of Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electrical-Electronic systems

The following relates to general Pneumatic, Hydraulic, Electrical-Electronic systems
as well as Control Systems which uses the systems mentioned.

Pneumatic Systems advantages:

- cheap initial installation
- air availability
- ease of transfer through piping
- ease of power and speed transmission
- ease of use
- ease of maintenance
- safe, explosion proof
- clean
- works in wide temperature range
- reserve compressed air can be stored

Pneumatic Systems disadvantages:

- more energy cost compared to hydraulic
- easy to leak
- hard to find leaks
- noise
- condensation/moisture
- needs drying to avoid condensation
- control of speed needs additional devices
- control of position difficult
- does not work underwater
- does not work in extreme temperatures
- requires bigger cylinder to handle the same load as in hydraulic

Hydraulic Systems advantages:

- high horsepower-to-weight ratio
- maintains constant torque and force
- hydraulic power can be transmitted in long distances
- motion reversal is fast
- handles strong, heavy loads, shock forces
- lesser overall wear because of oil lubrication
- does not generate sparks
- smooth operation/lifting/movement of loads
- costs less energy to operate
- leaks easier to find
- operates in hot environments

Hydraulic Systems disadvantages:

- more expensive initial installation than pneumatic system 
- noisy
- risk of contamination
- requires more energy to operate
- requires more maintenance
- heavier components, parts
- hydraulic fluid dangerous to humans
- hydraulic fluid not environment friendly

Electronic/Electrical Systems advantages:

- high accuracy
- quiet
- longer life
- no moving parts
- lesser maintenance
- more reliable
- high efficiency
- higher energy savings due to better energy management
- less drift and recalibration problems

Electronic/Electrical Systems disadvantages:

- expensive initial cost
- complexity of algorithms/troubleshooting
- risk of radio frequency interference
- risk of fire hazards due to arcs, sparks
- risk of electricution, short circuits, grounds

Sunday, June 21, 2015

8-minute run time for 3/8 cordless drill 18 volts

18 volts Lithium-ion
3/8 inch chuck
Max. Torque: 400 inch-lbs/33 ft-lbs/45 N-m
No Load RPM : 0-400 / 0-1,300 rpm
Clutch Settings : 15 position
Length : 7.7 inch
Weight : 3 lbs
Battery Charger: 45-Minute Fast Charger

Cordless drill run time depends on:
- Battery voltage: More volts, More run time

- Battery capacity: More amp-hours, More run time

- Drill Efficiency: More efficient, More run time

How long cordless drill run in a single charge?

Run time calculation
actual screws driven: 160 screws (3 inch size) per charge
assume: 3 seconds to drive per screw

Run time = 160 screws x 3 sec/screw

Run time = 480 sec

Run time = 480 sec/60 sec per minute

Run time = 8 minutes

Saturday, May 30, 2015

Pressurized Cylinder Projectile

Oxygen and Nitrogen cylinders typically have 2500 psig pressure
Oxygen is one of the three elements of the Fire Triangle (Fuel, Oxygen, Heat/Spark)
Oxygen cylinders are usually green in color
Nitrogen cylinders are usually black in color

Acetylene cylinders typically have 250 psig pressure
Acetylene is a highly explosive fuel gas used for brazing and welding
Acetylene burns at over 3,000 C/6,000 F (one of the hottest burning fuel gas)
Acetylene cylinders are usually maroon in color
Acetylene chemical formula is C2H2
Pressure relief valve set at 400 psig


Example: 6 x 20 inch --- small cylinder

Diameter = 6 inch
Radius = 3 inch
Height = 20 inch
Cylinder pressure = 250 psig
Weight = 22 lbs
Capacity = 40 cubic foot of acetylene gas (120 times compressed vs. empty)

Capacity of cylinder without gas = (pi/4) x D^2 x H

Capacity of cylinder without gas = (pi/4) x 6 in^2  x 20 in x 1 cubic foot/1728 cubic in

Capacity of cylinder without gas = 0.33 cubic feet (empty)

Full capacity comparison = 40 cu ft/0.33 cu ft = 120 times compressed

Cylinder Total Surface Area, TSA

TSA = 2 x pi x r x h  +  2 x pi x r^2

TSA = pi x d x h  +  2 x (pi/4) x d^2

TSA = pi x 6 x 20  +  2 x (pi/4) x 6^2

TSA =  377 + 57

TSA = 434 sq. in.

Total Cylinder Projectile Force = Pressure x Area  + Cylinder Weight

Total Cylinder Projectile Force = 250 lb/sq in x TSA  + 22 lbs

Total Cylinder Projectile Force = ( 250 x 434 )  +  22 lbs

Total Cylinder Projectile Force =  108,500 lbs + 22 lbs

Total Cylinder Projectile Force = 108,522 lbs

Total Cylinder Projectile Force = 54 tons approx.

*** Small pressurized cylinder with huge 50 ton force projectile !!!


1. Before working with pressurized cylinders, check them first.
2. Check valves, regulators - broken, damage, leak.
3. Check hoses - wear, crack, leak, damage.
4. Pay attention to leaks, noises and unusual smell.
5. After checking, if you found any defects, don't use it.
6. Keep cylinders a distance away from the work area --- don't braze/weld directly in front of the cylinder!
7. Always wear personal protective equipment when working with pressurized cylinders.
8. Open quarter turn only, this is enough for most jobs, faster to close in case of emergency.
9. Know location of fire extinguishers and nearest exits when working with pressure vessels.

1. Don't drop - damages valves, etc.
2. Transport in upright position.
3. When transporting heavy cylinders, they must have a safety cap securely fastened and be in an approved cart with chains to secure the cylinders.

1. Store in upright position and ensure safety cap in place - to prevent tripping, valve damage, etc.
2. They must have chains to prevent from falling over.
3. Oxygen and Fuel cylinders must be separated with a minimum wall height of 5 ft or 20 ft distance away from flammable substances such as paint.

1. Pressure relief valves
2. Fusible plugs (low melting point)
3. Pressure regulators
4. Safety cap

If you find a leaking cylinder, use your discretion, safety first!!!
If the leak is small and it is safe to close the valve, then immediately close the valve without endangering yourself.
If the leak is big, evacuate the area, close the door, pull the nearest fire pull station to sound the alarm, call Fire dept...